第十世夏瑪巴 米龐確竹蔣措夏瑪巴 (Mipam Chödrup Gyamtso)(1742年 – 1792年)

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第十世夏瑪巴為格魯傳承班禪喇嘛的弟弟,幼年時期都在奘地(Tsang)度過。這位年幼的仁波切會說出過去數世的種種,以及在祖普寺所發生的事,令他的父母又歡喜又吃驚。

第十三世噶瑪巴與第八世錫度仁波切認證了第十世夏瑪巴,為之陞座,並傳授傳承的所有教法。夏瑪巴所受的教育非常自由及廣泛,獲益于其他派別的許多偉大上師和學者。

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夏瑪巴的足跡遍及許多地方,特別是到過康地(Kham),以及德格(Derge)、囊先(Nangshen)以內的地區,為僧俗二眾傳授教法和灌頂。在中藏,他到過許多聖地獻上供養,然後返回祖普寺晉見噶瑪巴。

數年之後,西藏的政治和宗教陷於分裂狀態。第十一世達賴喇嘛示寂,格魯派攝政與他的群黨短視於寺院的眼前利益,迫害夏瑪巴並扣押他的紅寶冠。他們與軍隊共謀,強迫夏瑪巴的所有寺院都歸化於格魯傳承。

其後,夏瑪巴的名號被法令禁用,並強烈禁止認證夏瑪巴的轉世、舉行陞座,甚至禁止夏瑪巴居留在他自己的家園。第十世夏瑪巴離開之日,西藏陷入了深沈的悲痛!從此第十世夏瑪巴不曾再返回西藏。這次非人道的歷史事件得以讓菩薩寬容與堅忍的真正精神盡情示現。

夏瑪巴於尼泊爾渡過其餘的日子,持續弘揚佛法,利益每一位在精神上有所需要的眾生。

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第十一世夏瑪巴 (年代不詳)

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夏瑪巴法王紅寶冠正式的傳承被迫中斷。

第十一世夏瑪巴示現為一名醫僧,在藏北地區懸壺濟世。夏瑪巴以他自配的藥方為患者治病,從來不要求回報;夏瑪巴一方面利益眾生的身體,同時也利益眾生的心靈。雖然這一世夏瑪巴也研讀許多經教和禪修,然而此並未有得以記載。

第十二世夏瑪巴 塔謝蔣揚仁波切 (Tugsay Jamyang Rinpoche)(1880年 – 1947年)

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第五世夏瑪巴曾經預言,儘管噶瑪巴和夏瑪巴示現不同的色身,但在純淨超然的心中,兩人的精神是不分離的;第五世夏瑪巴謂:「噶瑪巴和夏瑪巴時而示現為父子,時而示現為情同手足的親人。」當夏瑪巴以蔣揚仁波切身份成為第十五世噶瑪巴的兒子時,應驗了這個預言。

蔣揚仁波切一生過著隱居但具意義的生活。菩薩,不論其名號為何,終究是菩薩。蔣揚仁波切隱身為一名瑜珈士,教導那些有幸認識他的人。他的加持護佑每一個願意領受的人。這位圓滿證悟的聖者,曾在一塊石頭上留下足印,向人們揭示:生命的真理遠非凡夫所能監控。

第十四世夏瑪巴 米龐確吉羅佐夏瑪巴 (Mipham Chokyi Lodro) (1952年-2014年)

 

 

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彌龐確吉羅卓于西藏德格出生。四歲時,第十六世噶瑪巴讓瓊利佩多傑認證他是第十三世夏瑪巴的轉世者。

夏瑪仁波切一直倍伴在第十六世噶瑪巴的左右,直至第十六世噶瑪巴於1981年示寂為止。夏瑪巴從第十六世噶瑪巴身上學取了完整的噶舉傳承教法。自第十六世噶瑪巴示寂以後,夏瑪巴一直對已故第十六世噶瑪巴啟動的多個項目作出貢獻。

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他完成了整套為214冊由顯赫的印度及西藏上師澄清釋迦牟尼佛教學的“丹珠爾”(Tengyur)的印刷。夏瑪巴對第十六世噶瑪巴的隆德寺亦給予支持及指引。他共同創立了於位於印度新德里的噶瑪巴國際佛學院。該學院目前向僧俗二眾授予佛學的課程。夏瑪巴經常到訪世界各地的噶舉傳承中心供養傳承教法。

尊貴的第十四世紅冠法王夏瑪巴,彌龐秋吉羅卓,於二零一四年六月十一日早晨,在德國菩提道中心Renchen-Ulm因突發性心臟病圓寂,享壽六十二歲。
尊貴的夏瑪仁波切一生奉獻佛行事業,特別是為了噶瑪噶舉的傳承,繼承了第十六世大寶法王的志願,修建寺廟和佛學院;又在世界各地領導數百間傳承中心,普及佛法,培養僧俗弟子,成為傳承的最高精神領袖。為了噶瑪噶舉傳承純正法脈的延續,他認證第十七世大寶法王噶瑪巴聽列泰耶多傑,奠定了傳承的基礎。祈願紅冠法王夏瑪巴慈悲不捨眾生,早日乘願歸來。

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尋找平衡 Finding balance

第十七世大寶法王聽列泰耶多傑 – 對信眾問題的回應 – 2013.11.06

His Holiness Karmapa Thaye Dorje responds to disciple’s question – 6.11.2013

問題:

尋找平衡:對無常的認知是修行的重要動力。但是在家人往往忙於照顧家庭及工作。乃至剩來進修佛學、內省及禪修的時間很少。為了增加修行的時間,我們是否應該刻意限制工作時間,找一份較悠閒的工作、避免結婚(因為婚姻會增加對家庭的責任)?我覺得修行是非常重要的。但只要我們生存,謀生、家庭及朋友也重要。現世的環境不允許我們像 密勒日巴 般極端,單靠蕁麻維生。請問您可否給一些忠告我們在家人,好待平衡修持及日務?

Question :
• Finding Balance: realisation of impermanence is an important part of building the motivation to practice. However, lay persons are mostly still caught up with work and family, and the time left for dharma study, inner reflection and meditation becomes little. Should we consciously try to limit the time spent on work by getting a less hectic job and try not to get married – which will increase family commitments – just so we have time to practice? Practice I feel is very important, but if we continue to live on beyond our next breath, bread and butter, family and friends are also important. The current day and age does not allow us to be like Milarepa and be so extreme as to survive on nettles alone. What is your advice to us lay persons as to how to balance practice and our mundane lives?

聖者大寶法王的回答:
His Holiness Karmapa Thaye Dorje’s response:

首先,我們要知道修行的價值。我想發問者明白它的價值。
First of all, we have to be aware of the value of practice. I think the person who asks this question seems to understand the value of it.
為了令其他人能決定怎樣找平衡、及明白這條問題的答案,我想明白佛法的價值是重要的。

For other people, in order to decide how to balance such things, and also to understand the answers, I think it is important to know the value of Buddha dharma.

明白佛法的價值,與明白他人、及與人溝通的重要性,有極度密切的聯繫。這問題與家庭有關、也與佛法有直接關係。在某方面,把時間分割用來照顧家庭或修行,比起初預計更複雜。
Knowing the value of Buddha dharma is deeply connected with knowing the value of other people, and the connection with them. Now in this case, the person asks about family – which is directly related to Buddha dharma. So in some ways, the idea of separating family time and time to practice is a little bit more complicated than it first seems.

我們先要完全明白佛法的價值及意義。然後再要問:『在此地、此環境、此時,我能做什麼?』
So first of all one has to really understand the value and meaning of the Buddha dharma. The next step is to ask the following question: ‘What can I do, according to where I am right now, according to my own circumstances, and my own time?’

這問題與管理時間有關。那我們要在問自己:『我可以做到什麼?』當然,我們要現實地衡量有能力做到什麼、什麼是必須、什麼不是。可能我們浪費了很多時間在一些無必要的事項。我想我們要鼓起勇氣,慢慢地捨棄這些不必要的事項。
This question is all about managing time, so again we may ask ourselves ‘What can I manage?’ Of course, we have to look at it quite realistically in terms of what is manageable, and also in terms of what is necessary and what is unnecessary. There may be a lot of things that we spend our time on which are quite unnecessary, and I think we then have to find the courage to be able to somehow slowly, slowly let go of these unnecessary activities.

這些事項因人而別。對某些人,繪畫是有益的;可能利益自己及他人。對另一些人,繪畫簡直是浪費時間。我們要因而衡量。我們需要誠實地探索可以做到什麼、什麼是必須和有利。
These could vary from one individual to another. For some, maybe painting is beneficial; maybe it is a way to somehow benefit oneself and others. For others, it might be a complete distraction, so accordingly we have to see. What is required is an honest exploration into what can be done, what can be managed, and what is necessary and beneficial.

經過在這些範圍上思考,我們便能挑戰『缺乏時間』的問題。真的。當在這些範圍上續一思考過,我們其實已經能找到方法節省時間。我們已經有進步。最少,我們能更深入了解自己的境況。

So I think if we cover these areas, then we are able to challenge this idea that there isn’t enough time. Indeed, just by going through these questions, we are actually making time – we are already making progress. At the very least, we develop a deeper understanding of our situation.

經過在這些範圍上思考後,剩下來,只需把我們的時間規劃,乃至做到必須及有益的。在這情況,我們要分配時間修持;分配時間給他人。我們所有都要做,但要做得恰當、平衡。拿捏平衡是困難,但重要。記緊佛法觸及我們生命及經驗的每一方面、人與人之間的聯繫。從某一方面看,每一霎那都是修行及尋找平衡的機會。
Once we have covered these questions, then I think we are left with the last step. This is to plan our life so that we are able to do everything that is necessary and beneficial. In this case, we have to make time to practice; we have to make time for others; we have to do everything, and somehow make it quite balanced, equal. It is difficult to find this balance, but it is important to plan in this way. It is also important to remember that the Buddha dharma reaches into all aspects of our life and experiences, and our connections with others, so in some ways every moment is also an opportunity to practice and to find balance.

環球暖化 Global warming

第十七世大寶法王聽列泰耶多傑 – 對信眾問題的回應 – 2013.11.08

His Holiness Karmapa Thaye Dorje responds to disciple’s question – 8.11.2013

問題:

身為父母,看到世界現況,我為兒女恐懼。因為環球暖化,人類將不能棲息於地球。政府不是補救得太慢,就是袖手旁觀。佛法怎樣能幫助扭轉這危機?

Question:

• As a parent I am terrified for our children and the world we are leaving them. Global warming suggests that one day the earth will be uninhabitable. Governments seem too slow and in some cases unwilling to act for change, so how can Buddhism help us to avert this crisis?

聖者大寶法王的回答:
His Holiness Karmapa Thaye Dorje’s response:

這是一個很好的問題。當然,環球暖化是一個確實的問題。但偶爾,我覺得這個概念有點被過度渲染。過度渲染會引起沒有利益、不實、令人覺無助的情緒。

That’s a very good question. Of course global warming is a real issue, but from time to time I feel that maybe the idea of this threat is a little bit overused. When this threat is overused, it can lead to the feeling that there is very little an individual can do, which is not beneficial – or true.

我們需要知識,令我們知道在每一境況中,可以做到什麼。我覺得佛法能在這方面,扮演一個非常重要的角色。

What is needed is the knowledge about what each of us can do in any situation, and I believe Buddhism has a very important role here.

這種情況裡,‘知識’不是空泛的詞語,而是有其特別意義。即是,對我們內在特質的認識 – 我們的內在知識。這種知識幫助我們在同一時間打開過百扇門。佛法的用意就是幫助我們得到這種知識。從這角度看,我想我們已經處於有利位置去處理各種挑戰。

In this context, ‘knowledge’ is not just a vague term, but refers to something very particular: the knowledge of our inner qualities – our inner knowledge. In other words, a type of knowledge that helps to unlock a hundred doors at the same time. This is the intention of the Buddha dharma. In this sense, I think we are already in a beneficial position to address all kinds of challenges.

普遍來說,我們經過教育得到知識。先不談佛法。我想在世界各地,現時對教育的重視是空前的。當然,在某些地方,建立教育系統還面臨挑戰。但大多情況下,過往沒有機會受教育的,現在都有充裕機會了。其實,在某些地區,教育機會過盛,還令人難以選擇。

When we think of knowledge in more general terms, the usual method and form that it takes is education. If we leave aside the Buddhist part for a moment, I think that in many cases around the world, the emphasis on education today is much better than previously in history. There are of course still challenges faced today, but in many cases, where there was previously an absence of education opportunities, now there is an abundance of it. In fact, there are so many education opportunities in some parts of the world, that sometimes there is a problem of not knowing which route to take, a problem of choice.

因為我們需要知識來解決環球暖化及其他問題,我覺得教育供給培養知識一個很好的平台。

As knowledge is what is required to tackle global warming and other challenges, I believe that education provides a very good platform for this knowledge and potential to be cultivated.

在佛學的角度,‘教育’可以被稱為‘內在財富’。有如我最初提及,‘內在財富’是所有人都有的未生(與生俱來)品質。‘教育’就是培養這些知識及品質。我們不需要別人的指導。這些特質是自然存在的。例如,慈愛、慷慨、善解人意。。。。這些是最基本的品質。

Education from a Buddhist point of view – what I would like to call ‘inner wealth,’ the unborn qualities that we all have, and which I already mentioned in my first answer – is about cultivating knowledge and qualities that are already there. No-one had to teach us them, no-one had to open our eyes or expose us to anything like that. Somehow, these qualities are naturally there, such as being kind, being generous, being understanding… one could even say the most basic of qualities.

我們應該發掘這些知識。在這方面,佛法最能作出幫助。從佛陀 釋迦牟尼 開始說法,直至最終,都是教導我們發掘這些知識。從那時開始,越百世紀,我們修煉時都是希望能夠長養內在品質。誰人能夠明白這一點,就能活得精彩及非凡。這些人永遠都能帶利益給他們觸及過的、遇過的、交談過的。

These are the things that I think we need to tap into, and I think that is key to what Buddhism can offer. Ever since our historical Buddha Shakyamuni taught the Buddha dharma, these were His very first words and also more or less His last words too. And ever since, the Buddha dharma that we have been practicing over the centuries and millennia, it has always been about cultivating our inner qualities. And whoever has understood this point has lived amazing, extraordinary lives. Whoever they touched, whoever they met, whoever they spoke to – there was always a benefit.

密勒日巴 是一個很好的例子。參看他的生平故事,可以察覺到他遇過的人,在任何情況下,就算會面只是一次小意外,都能得到利益。

One great example would be that of Milarepa. If we just look at his life story we can see that whoever he met, whatever the context, after that meeting somehow there was always a benefit, even from simple accidents.

所以我覺得佛法能在征服環球暖化中,很有幫助。教育平台及長養我們內在財富的方法已經存在。我們只需把握機會實踐。但怎樣實踐?

So I think that in terms of overcoming global challenges, Buddhism has a great deal to offer. The platform is already there, the methods to cultivate our inner wealth, and so all we need to do is just act upon it. But how?

在此時、此地、當下,我們有一個機會。當下是我們宇宙的中心,別無他處。在當下,我們能夠立即開始。換句話說,佛法供給我們重要知識,去明白在每一個境況中我們可以做什麼。不需要覺得無助,因為我們做到的還有很多。

In this very moment, this very space that we have right here, right now, there is an opportunity. This moment for us is the centre of the universe, nowhere else. So here and now we can already start doing something… In other words, the Buddha dharma provides us the important knowledge and understanding about what each of us can do in any situation. So there is somehow no need to feel helpless or hopeless, because each of us can do so much.

在這情況,幸運的我們不需要費勁便能做到很多。只需要專注於認知我們的內在品質/財富。坐下來,思量一下便何。佛陀發掘了一個方法,令我們不需費勁便能得到知識。在任何情況下,坐著、在交談中、睡著,我們都可以啟動及長養這些內在慈悲及包含智慧的品質。

In this case, the fortunate thing is that we have to hardly move a muscle to achieve so much. We just need to focus on recognizing what these inner qualities are, or what this inner wealth is – just by sitting. Buddha found a way where basically we seemingly need to do hardly anything. Whatever we’re doing, whether we are sitting, talking or even sleeping, we can activate and cultivate these inner qualities of wisdom and compassion.

如果隨著佛陀的腳步,我們能夠停止環球暖化、冰河時期、石器時代、所有的 – 全在靜修的片刻間。

If we can follow in the footsteps of Buddha, then we will be able to stop global warming, ice age, stone age, everything – all in a single sitting.

淨觀 Pure View

第十七世大寶法王聽列泰耶多傑 – 對信眾問題的回應 – 2013.11.14 – K.I.B.I., 新德里

His Holiness Karmapa Trinley Thaye Dorje – Response to disciples questions – 2013.11.14, K.I.B.I., New Delhi.

問題:

Question:

我的問題是有關淨觀及審批的能力。當我們鍛煉對其他人持淨觀時,會否阻礙我們去評審人或事物,並影響日常生活?佛陀是如實遍知的。我們的目的也是朝這個方向去獲得如實遍知的智慧。為何要在實相上,蒙上淨觀?比如,一個人犯了錯,對這個人持淨觀,是否要忽略他的錯誤,而不對這個人作出確實的評核?

My question is about pure view and the ability to discriminate. If one practices pure view of everyone, would it inhibit our ability to judge people and matters and function in daily life? As the Buddha is omniscient, and we are aiming to reach the same wisdom of knowing everything exactly as it is, why should be “superimpose” a pure view on something that we know to be a fact? For example, if someone has certain faults, is pure view about wiping away / ignoring these faults about the person, rather than having an accurate assessment of that person?

聖下大寶法王的回答:

His Holiness Karmapa Thaye Dorje’s response:

在佛學的層面上,我們修持得越久,便越需要探索淨觀這個題目。

‘In a Buddhist context, the longer we spend on the path as a practitioner, the more important it is to explore the subject of pure view.

審批這個行為、或審批的能力是個微妙的問題。在下定論之前,我們先要把握該情況中的每一件事實、每一角度。再說,這是一個微妙的問題。我們永遠都不能確定已經從所有角度去審慮過。我們的直覺、和懷疑,的確能幫助我們衡量事情。

The act of judging or the ability to judge is a delicate matter. Before we are able to judge a situation, we first need to be aware of every fact, every angle of that situation. But, again, it is a delicate matter. We are somehow never quite sure that every angle has been covered. Our instinct, and indeed our doubts, can be helpful tools to enable us to assess things.

我覺得奮力去證實某個觀點,是批判的一種。當我們批判時,我覺得重要的是以利益眾生為本,而不是爭取證實自己的某個觀點。讓別人知道自己的觀點,可能有助於衡量事情的能力和質素。

I believe that the very act of struggling to prove a point is a type of judgement. However, when we do judge, I think it is important that the motivation is for the benefit of others, rather than proving a point for ourselves. By putting our point across, it may improve the quality and ability for all to assess a situation.

如實遍知地審批事情是修行中的一部份,淨觀的長養更被視為道中道。

While judging through complete understanding may be considered part of the Buddhist path, the development of pure view may be considered as the path within the path.

淨觀到達越高的境界,審批的負累就越少。當能持淨觀時,我們便能如實觀察事物。我們再不需要審批事情,說事情是‘這樣’或‘那樣’的。能持淨觀時,我們不再需要奮力去證實些甚麼。如實觀之。

The higher the level of purity in our view, the lower the burden of having to judge at all. When we have pure view, we are able to see the facts as they are – there is no need to judge or say something is ‘like this’ or ‘like that.’ When we have pure view, we do not need to go around struggling to prove something. It is what it is.

如能持淨觀,犯錯的機會減低,所有事物都變得清晰。可能會問,我們有潛能去達至淨觀嗎?已經達至淨觀的人,都明白每人都有這種潛能。具淨觀的人,持有廣博的視野。再沒有需要去審批自己及別人。

As long as we have pure view, there is less room for mistakes, and everything becomes clearer. Questions might arise about whether or not we all have this potential for pure view, but those with pure view understand that we all have this potential. Those with pure view have a very broad, a panoramic perspective, let’s say. Again, the need to judge, either oneself or others, is no longer present.

在利益眾生的層面上,例如,菩薩生命的意義就是引導及幫助別人。能做到這一點,自己必先成為一個好嚮導。好嚮導的某部份職責是幫助別人釐清實相。這方面是涉及評審。所以一個菩薩,雖然能持淨觀,也需要評審。

Now, when it comes to benefiting others, let’s say in the case of a bodhisattva, the purpose of their life is to guide and support others. To be able to do this, you first need to be a good guide yourself. Part of being a good guide is to make things clear for others, which in some ways entails an element of judgement. In the case of a bodhisattva, therefore, some judgement comes into play, even when there is pure view.’

察覺自己真正的本性 Realizing my true nature

His Holiness the 17th Karmapa Trinley Thaye Dorje’s reply to a disciple on 27 February 2014

聖下 第十七世大寶法王 聽列泰耶多傑 對信眾的回答 (日期:2014年2月27日)

His Holiness discusses realizing our true nature.
題目:察覺自己真正的本性

Q: ‘Your Holiness, what is stopping me from realizing my true nature, the Buddha nature?’
問:聖下,請問什麼阻礙我們察覺自己真正的本性 – 佛性?

A: Perhaps it is a lack of a sense of adventure that is holding us back from realizing our true nature. It is easy to get used to the mundane life, the daily routines. As a result, we don’t want to let go of our familiar atmosphere, the life that we are used to. We are missing a sense of adventure.

答:阻礙我們察覺自己真正的本性的,可能是我們欠缺了冒險精神。我們很容易習慣凡世的生活、每天的規律。結果,我們不願意放棄熟悉的環境、及生活。我們欠缺冒險精神。

I think this is rooted in a deep fear: a fear of facing ourselves; a fear of knowing exactly who we are. It is almost like saying we fear looking at ourselves in the mirror and seeing our own reflections.
我想這缺陷是源於深層的恐懼;害怕面對自己;害怕認識自己。就是像恐懼望進鏡子,看到自己的倒影。

Of course, the trouble, or rather the challenge, comes from believing that the mundane elements of our lives somehow define who we are. The errors, the mistakes, the hardships and challenges that we have faced, can sometimes feel like they become a part of us. They hold us back, leaving their mark, sometimes even a sense of trauma. But these experiences are not part of our true nature. In fact, in some ways they can hold us back from seeing our true selves.

當然,這問題(或應該稱為挑戰)源自相信在塵世遭遇的事物,斷定了我們是誰。有時候覺得我們遇到的錯誤、困難、挑戰,成為我們的一部份。這些事物阻礙我們,留下印記、創傷。但這些事情都不是我們真正的品性。其實在某方面,它們阻礙我們看到真我。

Over the years, this kind of habitual pattern can somehow make us not believe in our own true nature, and feel that it is just wishful thinking that our true nature is different – a hopeful dream! So, I think this is what we have to overcome.

經年累月,這些習氣令我們不能相信我們的真本性,並誤以為有別的真本性是痴心妄想。我想我們應克服這觀念。

So that’s why we have to have great courage, and be a bit stern – even a bit stubborn – to really face ourselves.

因此,我們需要強大的勇氣、嚴謹、甚至乎頑固,去真正面對自己。

As practitioners, we will all be faced to some degree by the emotions, challenges and obstacles we experience in life. Without truly facing them, we will never ever realize our true nature.

作為修行人,每人都會遇到情緒化的時候、挑戰、及障礙。不能真正面對它們,我們永遠不能察覺到自己的本性。

When we really face ourselves, when we see our true reflections in the mirror, we see that the errors of this life are manifestations of none other than karma and klesha. We are then able to accept the way things are in quite an efficient way. It is almost as though we are tagging or categorizing our mundane experiences. Once we have somehow put them in their own places, we have nothing to see but ourselves and our true potential. This takes courage. It takes courage to face the fear of the past – to overcome the error of seeing our negative experiences as part of our true selves – but we need to do this in order to to help realize our true nature.

當真正面對自己,在鏡子中看到真正的倒影,我們明白到這生犯的過錯,莫非是業力及煩惱的示現。然後,我們就能夠以一種頗有效率的方法,去接受事物。我們把世上的事物分門別類。當我們把世事安置好,除了自己及其潛能外,就沒有別的可觀。這是要勇氣的。要勇氣面對以前的恐懼;矯正把負面經驗當為自己部份本性的錯誤。我們需要這樣做,才可以幫助證得自己的真本性。

佛語 Buddha speech

聖下大寶法王談『佛語』 His Holiness discusses Buddha speech.

最近,一位信眾向聖下大寶法王  泰耶多傑 發問以下的問題:

『親愛的大寶法王,請問在語言上,最好的修持是什麼?怎樣把語言變為佛語?』
At a recent event, His Holiness Karmapa Thaye Dorje was asked the following question:
Dear Karmapa, what is the best practice to work with speech? How to make it become Buddha speech?

聖下大寶法王的回應:
His Holiness’ response:

我喜歡這條問題。它頗為簡單,又直接。
‘I like that question – it is quite simple and to the point.

簡單的答案是:任何說話,如果是從一顆慈悲的(但不是情緒化的)心而發,這慈悲能令說話更加像佛語。
I think a simple answer would be that any speech that comes from a kind heart (in the unemotional sense) would help make it more like Buddha speech.

若果,我們稍為感到煩擾,我們的語言會反映內心的不安。聽起來,可能會被誤會為慈悲心。慈悲心,不是從情緒,而是從澄明的心識流露出來的。當心識是澄明,心是慈悲的,利益眾生的語言及行動隨即而上。當心識是澄明時,語言也更加接近佛語。
If someone is a little bit emotionally disturbed and shaken, then the speech expressed may reflect these internal disturbances, and this may in turn be confused for a kind heart. A kind heart flows not from emotion, but from a clear conscience. When the conscience is clear, the heart is kind and beneficial speech and activities follow. When the conscience is clear, the speech becomes more like Buddha speech.

我相信,為何稱之為佛語,是因為它不會包含動機。我們能從佛經裡察覺,佛的教法、說話,都反應這一點。它是純粹的布施,真正的分享   –   終極的分享。
I believe that the reason why we call it Buddha speech is because there is simply no agenda at all. We can see this from the very sutras that we have; the very teachings and actual words of Buddha reflect this. It is pure generosity, it is genuine sharing – the ultimate form of sharing.

這就是說,分享是慈愛。在這情況下,佛法便是無暇的例子。佛陀純正的分享反映了無限的慈愛。
There is a saying that sharing is loving. In this case, the Buddha’s teachings are the perfect example of this. Buddha’s genuine sharing is a reflection of limitless love.

佛語有什麼特質?經過多劫、多生多世,佛陀不單把語言,還把行為及思想修得圓滿。他明白到,不需有動機;他看到任何動機的錯漏。他知道布施及慈悲的好處,便簡單地把知識分享。
So what are the qualities of Buddha speech? Having perfected not only speech, but action and thought over many eons (basically meaning over many, many lifetimes); where there is simply no need for any agenda, as one can see the faults within any kind of agenda; seeing the positive qualities of generosity and kind heart; and then simply sharing knowledge.

讓我作一個例子。我想大家都熟悉各種祈願文。我正想起《普賢行願文》。從各方面看,它都是圓滿的。(若果,它沒有被誤解、或錯誤抄寫的話,)其中沒有一句、一字、一音不是佛語。
Let me give an example. I think most of you are familiar with the various aspiration prayers. One that comes to my mind is that of the Samantabhadra Aspiration Prayer. It is perfect in every way. There is simply not one sentence – in fact, not one word or even one syllable – that is not a Buddha speech. (Unless, of course, it has been wrongly interpreted or written in some way).

當然,所有經教、佛法都是佛語的例子。它們是圓滿的,因為它們沒有包含利己的動機、或希望有回報。它是純粹的給予。它是真正的分享。
Of course, all of the sutras and the teachings of Buddha are examples of Buddha speech. They are perfect because there is no self-interest, agenda, or expectation of something in return. It is pure giving. It is genuine sharing.

回頭說佛語的特質。重要的是要先研究一下一段說話是否有益。談論天氣,(除在某情況下),不顯得特別有益。若果一段說話是有益、有用的,便值得我們研究。若不,我們不需再費神。明白說話的前文後理是重要的。有些說話在某情況下有益,在某情況下沒有。反之亦然。重要的是反思我們能多控制自己的說話、思想和行動。為人有多沉著。
Going back to the characteristics of Buddha speech, an important question to ask is if something is beneficial. Speaking about the weather, for example, may not be particularly useful (except in certain circumstances). If speech is beneficial, if it is useful, then it is worth considering. Otherwise, it may be better to leave it. Understanding the context is important, as some things may be beneficial in some cases but useless in others, and vice versa. It is also important to consider how much control we have over our speech, thoughts and actions – how much composure do we have as an individual?

有時候,我們可以在不同的題目上發表。可能是關於天氣、繪畫、烹飪、烤餅、體育 。總之是有益便可。什麼也好,沒關係。
There are times when one can engage in various speeches, engage in various topics. Whether it is talking about the weather, painting, cooking, baking, sports – whatever – it doesn’t matter so much, as long as it is beneficial.

但說話怎樣才為之有益?從佛學的角度,“有益”這詞語包含兩種意義:利益此生、及來世。有益的語言能助我們得到解脫,隨後正遍知。
But what does it mean for speech to be beneficial? From a Buddhist point of view, when we use the term ‘beneficial’, it often refers to two things: beneficial in this life and the next life. Beneficial speech will help us reach liberation and then gain Samyakasambuddaya.

如果能利益他人,我們甚至可以說一些(表面上)無聊的說話。也可以吹口哨、哼歌之類。總之,有益便行。有些人可能喜歡哼歌。這可能是他們的習慣、他們熱愛的、能令他們有愉快的一天。如果,一天不哼歌,便會令他們不快。可能引致失眠,或做噩夢。對這些人,可能跟他們一起哼歌,以作鼓勵,能幫助他們證得解脫及正覺。一起哼歌能令你更加靠近這些人,直至你與他們熟悉到能開始對話的地步。是,明白說話的前文後理,和怎樣能真正利益他人是重要的。
So if it helps an individual and others, we can engage in seemingly pointless speech. We can whistle, hum, whatever – as long as it is beneficial. Maybe, for some people they like to hum – maybe humming is their hobby! Maybe it is their passion, maybe it is the thing that really makes their day. If they are not able to hum that day, for them it is a bad day. They may not be able to sleep properly, they might have nightmares. For someone like this, it might be helpful to encourage them by humming along with them, to help them reach liberation and enlightenment! You hum a little and you get closer, when you hum twice even closer, and a little more to a point where one can maybe have a conversation! Yes, understanding the context and what is truly beneficial is very important.

怎樣幫助臨終的人 How to help a dying person

第十七世大寶法王聽列泰耶多傑 – 對信眾問題的回應 – 2013.11.01

問題:

法王陛下,請問對著因癌症臨終的母親,我應該說什麼,和怎樣幫忙?

聖者大寶法王的回答:

在這種困難情況,無論是癌症,還是其他疾病,我相信只能提供一樣東西。其實,我們不單可以在困苦時提供這東西,還可以在平常提供。這是什麼?它是我們內藏的品質。

在閣下的情況裡,精神支持是無價的。它是最好的,比任何其他物件都更珍貴。在這時刻,任何了不起的物質也沒用。在這時刻,任何權利、名譽、財富都無所謂了。但簡單的精神支持,便非常受用。它是一切。尤其這種支持來自親友,更加容易受落。
當然有些情況,當一個陌生人給予支持,也會有幫助。但在閣下的情況,最好是用時間及精力去給予精神上的支持。就算有困難,也要在病人面前表現你是妥當、堅強和自信,這是有利的。要以言語及行動表現對各樣事情也有信心。

我想,有些情況,病人或許會復原。就算不能復原,他們也能以較平和的心情走過這段路。

是。在這些是佛法能給予的幫助。

His Holiness Karmapa Thaye Dorje responds to disciple’s question – 1.11.2013

Question:
• Your Holiness, what to say and how to help my Mum who is dying of cancer?

His Holiness Karmapa Thaye Dorje’s response:

‘I believe that when anyone is in this kind of condition – be it cancer or any other form of illness – in these difficult moments, I think there is only one thing that we can provide. In fact, we can provide this, not just during difficult times, but also when things are seemingly alright. What is this thing? Our countless inner qualities.

Now, in this case, providing emotional support is priceless. It is the best – there is nothing of greater value. At such a moment, whatever amazing things we can provide materialistically, will not help at all. At such a moment, power, fame, material wealth doesn’t matter – instead that simple gesture of emotional support goes a long way. It is everything. This is particularly true when it comes from someone whom you know, for it is easier for the recipient to accept.

There are cases, of course, when a stranger gives that kind of support, and this also helps. However, in the case of the person asking the question, I think the best thing you can offer is the time and energy to give emotional support. Even if it is challenging, it may be beneficial for you to appear and express in front of the patient that you are alright; that you are strong and you are confident – confident that everything will be alright – and then of course also express this through verbal and physical gestures.

And then I think there are some cases where the patient may become cured. But even if they don’t, at least they will be able to go through that journey in a much more peaceful manner.

Yes, these are the things that the Buddha dharma can always provide.’

靈修上師 Spiritual teacher

第十七世大寶法王聽列泰耶多傑 – 對信眾問題的回應 – 2013.10.24 – K.I.B.I., 新德里

問題:

在靈性的修持當中,是否必須有上師的正確指導?還是,如果對自己的修持有信心,我們能夠獨自修行?
如果認識自己是所有知識的開始,並且所有的答案都能夠往內尋,那為什麼找一個上師是那麼重要?

聖者大寶法王的回答:

我們全都有與生俱來、不生的品性。在佛學角度而言,這並不代表我們已經得到正覺,而只是說在每一個人都有這種潛能的種子。這是固有地存在的。

要真正坐下,然後告訴自己是與生俱來地清淨及得當,這可能有困難。雖然,在心識平和的霎那間,或許能與這些真諦聯繫。但如果我們覺得難以接受這種真諦、當處於困難中、或懷疑自己,那便是需要上師領導我們的明顯象徵;需要上師表明、解釋及教導我們真諦是什麼,它是怎樣的。
至於是否需要上師的問題,我們不需要到世界的盡頭去找答案。我認為在此時此刻就有答案。我們只需有問自己是否有這種潛能;能否真正明白真諦。或反過來問:我知道心識的本質嗎?我明白這宇宙和各現象嗎?

因此,我們需要正確的輔導。當然,又會產生很多問題,例如怎樣去找正統的上師、怎樣辨別正確的道路、等。去解答這些問題,我覺得應該留意上師的基本品格。在評核時,我們應當要清晰,即不情緒化。無論小乘或大乘,上師也應具有某種標準、或基本的品格,才能指導他人。

His Holiness Karmapa Trinley Thaye Dorje – Response to disciples questions – 2013.10.24., K.I.B.I., New Delhi.

Questions:

• Is it necessary to practice the spiritual practice only under proper guidance by a teacher, or can we start on our own if we have faith in what we do?

• If the beginning of all knowledge is to know yourself and we have all the answers within ourselves, why is it so important to have a spiritual teacher?

His Holiness Karmapa Thaye Dorje’s response:

‘We all have innate, unborn qualities. That is not to say that, in a Buddhist sense, we are already enlightened, but the seed of the potential is already planted inside each and every one of us. It is inherently present.

To really sit down and tell ourselves things, such as, ‘I am inherently pure and decent,’ can be difficult – although we can relate to these truths during unemotional moments. But If we have a hard time accepting these truths, when we are in crisis and have doubt in ourselves, then this is a clear sign that we do need someone to guide us; someone to show us; someone to explain and teach us what it is, and that it is like that.

In terms of the question of whether we need a teacher or not, it is not that we have to go to the end of the world to really find the answer. I believe it is right here, right now, we can just ask ourselves individually ‘do we really have the potential or not?’, ‘do we really understand the truth?’ Or, we can change the terms by saying ‘do I know the nature of mind?’, ‘do I know the universe and phenomena?’ and so on.
For this, we may need proper guidance. And then of course, there comes many questions such as ‘how to find an authentic guide?’ and ‘how do we know that that is the right path?’ and so on. But for that I think it is important to focus on the basic qualities of the teachers or guides, and also use our own basic qualities to assess with a good degree of clarity, i.e. without emotion. So, whether Theravada teacher or Mahayana teacher, there are certain standards or certain basic qualities that he or she should require in order to guide.’

皈依三寶

皈依三寶為修道之根本,佛法之精要。要了解到何為「皈依三寶」,一般可從認識娑婆世界入手。因為皈依佛法僧三寶是以娑婆苦境難堪為主因。天道人道阿修羅道畜生道餓鬼道及地獄,此六道中眾生在不能繼續忍受娑婆苦境煎熬而生起厭離度脫之想。假如厭離苦海之心念不痛切,則皈依佛法僧三寶以求度脫之意願與向往終難顯發。

娑婆世界大概可分為兩方面:

一是所處之苦境。一是苦境內之苦惱眾生。所有眾生皆因迷惘而苦惱。並非六道以外,別有所謂苦惱眾生。眾生之苦惱無量如海。故亦稱娑婆苦境為苦海。

六道無量苦境起源於眾生之一念迷惘。由於所想不真而不自覺知。誤執現前一切虛無幻妄為真實境界。根據顛倒想,情懷鼓盪,不能自己。而意氣用事,表現於言行。產生意念言語行動上之成果。此所謂業。業力為因。眾生被業力冥冥牽引,生生世世不得自由。枉為自作之善業惡業所支配。輪迴六道,如環無端。由此可知,六道苦境源於眾生一念不覺。

無始來,有生定必有死,死而復生,生生死死,遙遙了脫無期。運到時來,還須身受苦樂二果報不爽。苦果固知是苦。順境作樂,往往在不自覺間種下來世苦因。苦因復生苦果。果報自招,無可倖免。娑婆苦境就此形成。娑婆取生死相續無了期為義。而眾生深以此相續不斷為苦。

娑婆境內苦惱眾生在不能繼續忍受苦境煎熬而思脫離。在苦海翻騰裏尋求庇護。渴望得到一個可靠之依止與歸宿。

說到皈依則當慎重考慮到所皈依者是否能勝任如此艱巨之使命。他能否澈底拔除苦惱,予眾生以自在安樂。他能否堪任為眾生終生所依止,直至苦厄度盡而後已。由於使命如此艱巨,苦惱眾生往往懷疑到天下間竟有人願意為他度脫,竟有人堪任為他度脫。試想除却大慈大悲佛陀以外,還有誰能承當此使命。

佛陀慈悲無量,誓願宏深,以救度所有眾生為己任。佛陀福德與智慧都無量。具足不可思議法力,決定能救度所有眾生。問題為在於眾生能否一心歸命,依佛陀言教而信受奉行。

佛陀平等護念所有眾生。眾生是否一心向往往最後決定了眾生能否領受到佛陀如甘露之加被。佛陀加被如降甘露。眾生如器、善能容納。而容量之大小不等齊,此則有視乎個別眾生對佛陀之虔誠敬仰心、程度上之差別。眾生之祈求敬仰心既深且切,此可用「久旱逢甘雨」作為比喻。及其至也,大雨滂沱潤澤乾涸之土壤,深深透入。而土壤之吸納與容量相應大大倍於尋常。感應道交,理應如此。可知除却認識佛陀圓滿德性以外,眾生倘若未能懇切祈求,則佛陀平等施予之加被,恐怕只能部份領納。

佛陀究竟覺萬德具備而以自覺覺他二德性為眾德之首。二者不獨不相違反,而實是相輔相成。不自覺了,何由覺他。志在覺他,大有助於自覺之成長。二者缺其一,覺行終難圓滿。覺行未圓,尚未堪稱為究竟覺。自覺者偏重於修慧。覺他者偏重於修福。進修期間,福德與智慧不能偏廢。福慧兩相兼顧以莊嚴佛道。終能成就佛果菩提,既已成就究竟覺,佛陀之果德周圓。體用兼備。福德與智慧同等無量。所以普遍利羣生之法力與佛行亦同等無量。

佛門進修期間可簡略分為四階層:

初機期:最初入門眾弟子。

聖僧期:修行日久,於理明體證,雖然未及於究竟而果位即不無。

菩薩期:此為初期菩薩發大心,以救度苦海中無量眾生為己任。而於究竟成就佛道則尚有待於將來。

成佛期:此即菩薩之末後期。望於眾生,已鄰於佛位。望於佛陀,則尚名菩薩。

佛陀有所謂三身:法身報身及化身。

世尊歷劫修行透澈證悟到凡所有眾生,其心體皆本然具足根本智。此根本智不勞歷劫修行,新從外獲。然能確知其真實本然存在無疑,還有待於個別眾生之歷劫勤求而親自體證。

色身如幻無常,佛陀除此以外,尤以心法為身。以此寂然存在之靈覺心性為本體。此名法身。

報身為佛陀苦厄度盡自在安樂之境界。

化身百千萬億為佛陀於六道中廣泛拔苦與樂而隨機應現之幻化身。並藉此得以方便接引機緣業已成熟之眾生。眾生得蒙佛陀慈悲接引,倘能念念不忘利益羣迷。自利利他。福德與智慧齊修,則福慧兩相滋長,迅速成就佛果菩提。

法身主慧。寂然不動為佛心靜之一面。而報化二身則為佛心活潑之一面。自然而然,任運騰騰,隨機度化,萬應無方。佛行無量,佛陀之福德與功德同等無量。眾生何須多疑佛陀究竟能否普度羣迷,脫離苦境。眾生至此,可以安然歸命,依佛陀言教而信受奉行。

每當苦難固宜倍加精勤。誠心禱告。懇切祈求佛陀如甘露之加被。最終極處,還須以澈證佛果菩提為心願。祈望果位等齊於無上正等正覺。

我在此須要略為補充:當知以澈證佛果菩提為心願,祈求果位等齊於佛,並不等於存心與佛陀較量高下。而於佛位存心取而代之。所有眾生本來是佛。無始來,苦於迷惘不自覺了,待證方知。何勞取代。

若論皈依三寶則固當以皈依佛寶為主皈依,而以法寶僧寶為輔助皈依。

眾生在漫長而險惡之旅途中,力扙僧法二寶扶持。適如古代遠渡重洋之不能不賴船舶。故對此二皈依,不可能不重視。不可能無所認識。

何謂法寶。此為佛門修行中之善巧方便。修行者直賴此方便以成就佛果菩提。此為成佛所必由之通道。法寶略可分為前後兩階段。早期是進修。末後是止境。進修期滿,苦因盡處,苦果不生,故名止境。法寶即是佛道,佛門信眾小大由之。此關乎修行者如何採用佛陀言教實踐於日常生活中。換言之,修行者如何依於法寶積福增慧以完滿佛行。修慧所以成就法身。修福所以成就報化二身。依於法寶,福慧雙修,終得成就法報化三身。位齊大覺。

此境亦可稱為究竟果滿期。功成果滿、唯佛陀果位,堪稱究竟。其餘阿羅漢,聲聞緣覺,辟支佛,乃至菩薩等,各居果位。而果位終非究竟。苦因未盡,苦果還生。當知苦厄度盡處,心地不染一塵,實為佛陀報身之無上自在安樂境界。因循正確之途徑,必然抵達正確之終點。修如是因,證如是境。此為理所當然。

本題不著重於探討果滿期之果位各階層。故於此暫不深入。

至於何者為法寶。簡略言之。所有佛陀之言教概括無遺,名為法寶。

何謂僧寶。僧眾既自修行,並同時代佛宏化。提攜後學。善誘眾生歸向於正道。佛法僧三寶密切相互關連。眾生在漫長之修行路上,固宜一併歸向。方便自覺覺他,以圓滿覺行。

佛寶覺行圓滿為眾生作楷模。

法寶者為修道之善巧方便。

至於僧寶 – 夏瑪巴寧波車謙稱在皈依儀式進行中,彼且權當僧寶。蓋僧寶有異於僧團內之各僧侶。僧寶為僧中之聖,象徵佛陀,堪為僧侶作楷模。復為僧伽精華之所在。而壇前之佛像象徵佛寶 – 亦即如來化身。

皈依禮成。僧寶繼而代皈依眾去髮一小束於頭頂上。象徵娑婆苦境從今永斷。信眾邁上修行之康莊大道。直指佛果菩提。

既已發願皈依三寶,則宜虔虔謹守承諾而不失。誠心向道。倘若未能如此。則只能部份領受到佛陀橫遍豎窮如甘露之加被。承諾既守,即蒙僧寶多方接引,得以安然精進修行。並為佛陀慈悲護念,直至成就佛果菩提。倘恒自律自勉,能致誠堅守皈依三寶之承諾。更不必固執人為不變之成規。

試想:除却佛道,此外還有何道。除却佛陀,此外還有誰。

身居五濁惡世而又末法時至。時勢不利修行。但求誠心誠意,竭力為之。修道之成果,間或未如所願。此亦無可奈何。

有人曾經發問:不幸身患蟲疾,如何避免殺生。不殺蟲,病終不起。殺蟲。蟲亦生也,云何可殺。此固亦無可如何。病不痊癒。如何繼續修行。

又有人認為漁與獵同為人生大享受。利益身心。以此為樂。有何不可。豈知順境作樂種下來世苦因。至於如此之謬論,想亦不攻自破。

現在三皈依既竟。各位應當謹記,皈依三寶為修道之根本,佛法之精要。一切德行基於此而修。一切誓願基於此而發。

止靜與無上思維修

藏文開示羅圓慧譯

止靜與無上思維二法門,定慧等持,淵博莫測。歲月恆修,更不見涯底。於此浩瀚法門之著手進修,當盡可能採用最顯淺之方便。

我並先向各位坦白說明,賴語言以表達甚至最基本之悟境,我都無此自信。語言乃屬人為,以方便日常生活之彼此共通。由共通之經驗而後有表達此共通經驗之語言。佛學哲理之詞彙更限於表達行者與行者之間之共同內在體證。此內在境界並無任何外在客觀標準作可靠之恆量。內外睽隔語言囿限於此,根本無法提升至於個人內在體證之領域上來。我們表達悟境之基本困難在此。

如觸冰塊而知寒。又如熱茶一杯在手而有熱之感受。寒與熱之定義,不相混淆。因為既往在不同之情況下,人人同有此共通之經驗與感受。內在的體證則不同。如人飲水,冷暖只能自知。我們不能遽下準確客觀之定義。

近數百年來不錯有一套佛學詞彙在西藏滙集而成。行者與行者之間同其修持,同其悟凉境者可以彼此由特定之詞彙傳表密意。

例如大手印法中有所謂「一味」之名詞。(大手印法喻如玉璽之權威印鑒不移。大手印於此取其等視一切法不變之義。) 「一味」為大手印法多層證悟中之悟境。其含義難以準確肯定。此味定非舌嚐。顯然是個比類相似。行者與行者之間,同其修持,同其證悟者,聞「一味」而彼此會意引起共鳴。

未循此境之行者至此茫然。於此不可把捉之抽象名詞,只能勉強勾畫出其最粗略之輪廓。

話雖如此,但我不能就此不向各位提供我對止靜與思維修此二法門之所見。上來所及,我在此重申:最深奧之法門無過於從最淺處入手。靜坐法清新可喜,不繁複而又收效大。初學可試採用。固亦有其他方便法門不勝枚擧。但所有法門其目的不外乎達到心平氣和、止靜無間。在一段時間內,保持制心一處而不亂。

最初靜坐可由十分鐘、二十分鐘慢慢延長至半小時以外。坐而能靜止無間,宜乎被公認為功力甚深。學侶在最早期同樣可以習靜觀心。徐見前念後念,相繼起伏。縷縷如浮雲過青天。

在此期間,意馬心猿最難調服。倘能耐心修持有恆,則妄念之克制降伏,決定可祈。行者日漸心平如鑒,不復為煩燥雜念之所困擾。

以水喻心境:最初是妄念澎湃如瀑流。長期習靜,心念轉細。此如長江大河之暗流,隱約在有無中。末後境界喻如高山無人處之寒潭止水。

止靜修持之穩定與否有視乎個人專注力之强弱。由銳於專注大有助於靜修中定力之增長,引起我們留意到分散專注力之所在及其形成。

於此略可分為內紛擾與外分擾之兩大類。外分擾如外在環境噪音之聲浪汚染。致令行者精神一時無法集中。

又時有紛擾而未必自覺其為紛擾。如人在沉思中之視而不見、聽而不聞、食而不知味。

最初但求精神之不向外馳散,定力苦不從心。靜修日漸純熟,則所有從前之外紛紛擾都不能為患。時有高度修持者滿盛杯水置頭頂上。不容心念一煞那馳散。

形成內紛擾之因素繁多。然亦不出乎情緒感受好與壞之兩方面。

壞情緒壞感受概括所有能障覆本性之情感。諸如瞋罣嫉妒恐懼等。

習靜期間難以抑制之情緒,其動盪性往往倍甚於尋常。行者終日擾來攘往,口不停說話。腦不停計度思量。念念相繼不絕。其專注力四面八方分散卻,對潛在之激盪情懷,無暇深入探討。偶爾心虛慮靜,動盪之情懷,歷然湧現。

在另一方面,內紛擾有涉及於好感受。由好感受引起之內在紛擾,微妙隱约,容易被忽略。例如耐心習靜多時,行者頓覺心曠神怡,欣慰不可名狀。終於由習靜帶來成就感與滿足感。行者不期然陶醉於舒適稱意之感受中。然於此情懷奔放之怡悅境界,不許稍生戀棧。若不能即證即離,強求此境之無限延續或一再重演。行者於不自覺間因執成障,導致妨礙悟境之更進一步向上提升。

當內外之紛擾一時淨盡。自在明澈之虛靈感,油然生起。此際行者不能稍存內外人我之分別相對心。例如眼前所見有杯茶置於桌上。行者之視覺但投於杯上而稍作停留,此晶瑩透澈之心境,截然消失。行者之心念此時惺惺照明如故。由於定力未充,惺惺而不寂。如野馬之未馴服,稍縱即逝。

日久功深,心念馴穩,則重點可內移歸「吾我」上來。倘能於我而無我,此時無限自在,無限明澈,無限虛靈。無始來慣性視萬象為「自性有」。為有質礙之真實。此觀念,至此不存在。

行者到此階段再不宜無師自通。無優良導師不能正確辨別此境之真偽。並對此超然境界作出恰當之演繹說明。處於境內者迷。行者不能辨別此境是否由於願求心切而虛幻形成。心法微妙難知。如無良師鑒別,行者必然斷定此境為真實不虛之玄妙悟證境界。上師過來人,對靜修之每一階段瞭如指掌。得蒙指引,行者當可安然繼續進修。

學侶皈依上師固不可不從審慎中進行:考慮到上師是否精明善誘。是否嚴而不厲。成熟而有耐心。能巧令行者不生轉退。我於此向各位再三叮嚀。在修行中皈依優良導師其重要性不容忽視。

承上所說,真實之自在感、明澈感與虛靈感,顯示行者於止靜修持功成果滿。此後專注定力日漸增强。而自在之感受在專注定力繼續壋强下,日呈穩定持久。可惜往往為分別心之所囿限,行者難循此境。分別心忙於分別得失利弊好歹,在不覺中幻化怡悅心境以抗拒抵禦內心之煩亂不安。基於祈望心切,緣慮之投射如影,妄現非真。

自在感之形成,真假有別。明澈之感受同樣可由心念不正,導致顯現非真。

何謂「明澈感」於此簡略下個定義。

此明澈之心境,不外為本然存在覺性,反自觀照之所見。歷歷明明生靈等具之覺照機能,於此自見自知。能照所照,相即相入。所謂「明澈光體」者,光體無體而以用為體。從其能照之功能,肯定覺照體性之存在。既往愚昧不覺,於此由無始來未嘗亡失之靈覺性,照破萬劫無明。光明洞澈無礙。如燈光於煞那間照破萬年暗室。

非如路燈之隱約夜照行人。

在日常生話中之所以不能見性明者,以心性之靈明本體為妄念所覆蓋而其照明之大用不顯。心性如水妄念如大海中之波濤。我等所能見者為波濤之翻騰洶湧,相繼起伏,而不能即洶湧波濤而知是水。

此如波如濤之妄念,源於眼耳鼻舌身意六根之妄動。而六根之妄動,外以色聲香味觸法之六塵為助緣。六根和合六塵而生六識。眼耳鼻舌身前五識,認知前境。並由第六意識專主了別傳送。日常生活之一切心識活動,迷惘昏沈。以前念後念相繼不絕,障蔽本性。此如浮雲蔽日,致令清淨本然之靈覺性不能為用。

應付日常生活,我們往往如盲驢信腳行,不經自我反省而作出一連串機械式之心行與反應。應知向內自省為一切思維之本。所有心識活動,如不能與橫遍豎窮,其大無外之心體相應者,全是愚昧不覺之妄念。如聲浪之困擾習靜修持。徒然障蔽本性。

妄念一旦平息。心境之無限清澈,自然顯露無遺。如上所說,若於此時稍作戀棧,因執成障。清澈可喜之妙境轉眼頓成苦海中之煩惱波濤。

空寂感無異於清澈感與自在感。既同一原理,於此不贅。

心體之空寂感由於無始無明顛倒虛實,不能證得。如以此虛靈覺體視為人體內之神經系統機能,終難免導致情緒過度緊張。神經系統失調。如心理之病徵不幸由此釀成。則更不容否認「人心」之真實存在。試把各言概念一摒拋卻。至此心地不染一塵,本然存在這空寂境界油然顯現。從上來,一再叮嚀,自在清澈感現前,萬不能執持不捨,求其無限延長或一現再現。於空寂境界,患得患失煮染汚自性,所證亦非真。

行者和悅安祥,於一切法平等能離能捨者以習靜為因。止靜中,內見自心如寒潭清澈,即照即寂,怡然自得,不假外求。此與勞慮妄心有何交涉。當下是非有無真假虛實之桐對概念名詞,皆為剩語。

靜修無止境。繼續精進,證之彌深,悟之彌深。終於如美麗蝴蝶翩翩破繭而出。行者至此不問世務。日唯一餐半頓以敷此助道之軀。專心向道,其精進倍於從前。證悟固不凡耳。然此亦未出離分段變易二生死。與佛陀之究竟覺不可同日而語。

習靜功深,專注力强,則無上思維修可同時順利進修。

或有視思維修為初學入門之顯淺基本法。應知思維修實有深淺二階層。同名思維修而其含義大有分別。

於此,思維修取其甚深之玄義。無上思維修之最高境界,上與諸佛之究竟覺等齊。殊非顯淺入門法可知。中觀及其他玄妙深奧之法要,在西藏密法中同被列入為思維修部。

止靜與思維修,相互依持,本無先後。但靜修一貫被視為進修期而無上思維修則被視為果滿期。果滿期之成果,真境界高深叵測。

初學入門當由分析而了解到此所謂心之虛妄不實。由理智分析洞察到虛妄不實之原由。更進一步直覺了知內外之一切現象(內而視聽覺知,外而色聲香味觸法)同為虛妄。最初從外觀察到彷彿如有真實存在之一切現象,不外唯心。識心所造。識心所現。心識之所投射如影如幻。所現非真。而了悟到日常生活之所見所聞,原來都無真實體性。因此之故,大乘佛學中同認為從外觀察而知因果之本然者知一切佛法。知妄即離。無始來,被如夢幻境所牢固囿限,至此騰躍而出。如實知日常生話所見之相對真實,如過眼雲煙,唯是虛幻。如能即知便捨,則不復執取,妄為顛倒想之所囿限。

止觀修行至此依稀見本性。而對儼然存在之幻法,操縱自如。並借用外在之幻境為助道之方便。大菩薩澈悟空理並已成就大悲願者,往往值幻境以滿足眾生之心願。因緣和合,並值幻境以現身說法度生。如阿彌陀佛於西方極樂淨土隨機化現無量身。於無量國土,度脫無量眾生。轉物自如,不復為物所轉。譽如大醫王了知藥性,故能治一切病。

佛菩薩具足如此大用者能化現夢境,操縱夢境不牢固之原動力。修持成就超卓者,往往亦循此境。並擴而充之,置身日常生活中猶如夢境。就此操縱日常生活之原動力,廣泛利益眾生。然其大用未及於無量。與佛陀相比,尤隔天淵。

修此法門在於見性。瞥見心性之真實本然,一煞那間,如盲得見。既已能見,即不復更盲。然視力未充。心性依稀可辨。精巧純熟於思維修者如有目了然能見。然有目無足終不能至。理明如自能睹,終有待於大澈大悟之真實體證。

思維修始於觀察事相。以心為例:心非肉團,亦非腦部剖解後之可見可觸者為心。此心不在人體內外中間,然亦非無物。歷歷然活力充沛。蓋心虛靈為性而無質礙。心體之活動可大概分為有念無念兩方面:念念相續無間,前念後念了了分明者為心。試數六十秒內有多少念頭曾經掠過。心念既非質礙,終無法令其止息。

又試數當下有多少種色擺在眼前。不論多少,此心都能了別而不亂。色法當前,難免妄念隨起隨伏。

假如所有妄念一時都被摒除則又如何。

無妄念心是個什麼心。

由無妄念,煞那瞥見此心之另一方面。

行者至此感官機能之正常活動暫時失應。耳不聞聲。眼不見色。而鑒照之本覺驀然顯露。超常之視聽覺知,自此大大擴展增強。而有所謂五種超越之感官機能活動。初學入門、如上所述,依次修行。致重點於審察思維此我是誰,則上述之玄境,終可證得。

專注力一旦隱定自然。驕慢心、嫉妒心等當前,都能冷靜分析無礙。至此內外境界平等一如,不可分別。然執妄為真之蒂固根深,在無上思維修之高度體證前,未易清除。不協調之情緒則在較早時,已可部份削弱而被克制。由理智分析而知一切法妄幻。妄幻者性空。何所執著。

早期靜修,情緒上之故障已可由最簡易之分析方法而平息。瞋罣嫉妒等妄念才起,正視此念從何處來。頓見瞋罣嫉妒等念,來無來處。從一切雜念之來無來處,去處亦無,而知其性空。萬法不外為心造心現之「心所法」。但能如是冷靜觀察。一切妄念自然平息。正視「執著」此妄念從何處來,同樣可以觀空執著。

業障則不能如是觀空。業障繼續運行。因果生生不息。靜修一門深入、終不能令行者從因果輪迴中度脫。日常注意起居飲食,保持心境平穩。不如意事不幸發生,其震撼性,由定力之強度相對減弱。修行日久,止靜法與無上思維法循序進入雙修階段,則業障因果之撩亂行者心境,其作用不大。

在靜修期間,行者往往為外境所困擾,動盪不安。難關在此,如何闖出。我在此向各位提出一個建議。希望各位當下迴小向大,迴自向他。早發大心長遠心。受菩蕯戒。謹守度盡無邊眾生之承諾。播下成佛種子。無始來,六道眾生曾為父母,於此發願救度,以報劬勞。況且廣大長遠慈悲心為佛心。此心倘能與佛心同其廣大,實為成佛捷徑之捷徑。受菩蕯戒己,虔虔服膺而不失。外見於言行威儀。則一切魔障都無能為患。如Shantideva於「菩蕯行」中所說:「菩蕯戒守護行者,降伏所有魔障。」由此可見持戒於修行其重要性不容忽視。

持菩蕯戒內當常自警覺。如有違犯,隨犯隨懺。初受戒,朝夕護持不易。如能誠心誠意,終能克服一切困難。保持身口意三業清淨。日誦三省經文三次(The Three Recollections) 觀想三十五彿,並念念不忘眾生利益。苟能如是修持,則菩蕯戒庶幾虔虔服膺而不失。

最後我至誠勸勉各位於止靜與無上思維二法門慎重雙修。每念及人生苦短,行者固宜倍加精勤。修者自修,行者自行。他人但能從旁指引,餘無可為。我於此更提醒各位,修持密法,傳統上不能無上師。皈依品學兼優之上師對行者進修有莫大之幫助。

羅圓慧譯

一九九三年癸酉雞年閏三月

(譯本以原文為準)

妙境佛學會 NEW HORIZON BUDDHIST ASSOCIATION